Research notes – Gregory Crewdson

I initially came across Gregory Crewdson when flicking through an American photography magazine. One of his famous tableaux images (link) was featured as part of an advertisement from a well-known print manufacturer. I remember looking into him at that time and noticing that, like Jeff Wall, whose pictures I had seen before, Crewdson primarily works with carefully staged scenarios. Unlike Wall’s, Crewdson’s images have a distinct quality that make them immediately obvious as to being staged (see this, for example), but at the same time intriguing enough for one to stop and ask why has this been set up and what is the photographer trying to tell me.

I decided to look at Crewdson images again for this part of the course because for one of the exercises as well as for assignment 2, I was going to rely heavily in props and made up situations, and I wanted to try to understand how these images work at a general level, without any pretensions as to being able to produce anything near that quality, at least for the time being.

The image referenced in the first paragraph is part of Crewdson’s series “Beneath the Roses” and this was my starting point. The book covering this (1) is generously sized but does not do justice to some of the images, which are printed to very large formats (about 1.5 by 2.2 meters). Crewdson’s subjects can sometimes occupy a very small part within the frame, and looking at the original size print would have helped to look at the details of this. Many of the images share common visual elements, and in some cases I found that there were pictures that were too similar and I started to question whether it was necessary to include all these images in the book. I presume not all these pictures are shown together in a show, so it may just be a case of the photographer trying to give us the full set of images produced for the series, like a full body of work, rather than a condensed, curated view.

In “Beneath the Roses”, Crewdson presents us with dark, eerie view of suburban life. The images were mostly taken at night or during the twilights. Artificial light plays and important role in the images, in some cases being the only source of light – some of the images were taken inside a soundstage – but even in the outdoor pictures artificial light is used to emphasise the location of the subject (see this, for example, where the car at the junction is illuminated from the inside). I also like how Crewdson mixes light sources, with many pictures having a mix of both warm and cold light that emphasizes the vivacity of the images. Most of the indoor images are contrasty but have a slight HDR quality to them, probably created by the lighting effects employed during production. This emphasizes the sense of staging that I mentioned in the first paragraph.

Crewdson’s subjects are rarely doing something in the pictures. Most of the time they are static, motionless – standing or sitting – or just walking, seemingly aimlessly. There is almost no interaction between subjects in the frame and this also adds to the oddness of the images. Some of them look like taken from a dream, like the image of a man digging out suitcases and moving boxes in the middle of the forest (link). In others, the action of people make no sense, like in the image of a lady, who has presumably just got off a taxi and is standing in the middle of the road barefoot, pensive, with people remaining in the taxi looking to the front, away from her, oblivious to the fact that she left the taxi door open (link). I looks like rather than showing the decisive moment, Crewdson images are taken moments before or after that, capturing instead an odd moment. All in all, the people in these images look lonely and the overall impression one gets from the images is that of sadness and self-absorption.


(1) Crewdson, G., 2008. Beneath the Roses. 1st ed. New York: Abrams.


Exercise 2.4

The following comments are made after reading the relevant entries in the course guide and looking at the work of Peter Mansell, Dewald Botha and Jodie Taylor.

In first instance, I felt quite a lot of affinity with Peter Mansell’s work and his way of approaching photography. Like him, I am also trying to transition from a photography where aesthetic considerations come first to creating images that come from somewhere more personal and reflective, that have more meaning than beauty. Mansell does not talk about the journey much, and this is the part in which I wish I could have more information from his experience, because it does feel quite confusing at the moment for me. He does talk, though, about the great relief he felt when he started being able to tell his story in visual terms, as he seemed to have difficulties in communicating his frustrations to other people via words:

I learned as a disabled person to hide, ignore and push through the manifold irritants and barriers to getting on and not share them with anyone.

As I progressed I found that I was being drawn to use photography more and more as a form of expression. The process of creation often saw me though pain and anguish while the end product acted as a visual statement about my existence and that experience. In a way it sort of objectified my situation or experience and by so doing released me emotionally.

Mansell has found a personal subject that has allowed him to release that experience that he struggled so much to put in words to others. I am also looking for that, but for me the biggest obstacle seems to be fear. Not fear of failure because in many ways I have already been there, but is more a fear of rejection and isolation. If I were to use photography as a way of conveying my personal experience and feelings, as a means of communicating with others, I fear that I cannot either be brave enough to do that with honesty, or that if I do that, I would end up burning too many bridges. I am already burning bridges in any case by trying to move away from a purely aesthetic perspective in photography to a more reflective one. For people, it is hard to find interesting pictures of mundane objects and I feel that I have not develop the narrative yet to sustain this. I fear that if I go all out on this, I would end up burning all my bridges without building anything else durable. That fear, I must continue to fight in order to move forward.

Mansell also talks about the differences between photography and the likeness of its subject, which is one of the aspects of the medium that fascinates me the most. Because photography is a way of reproducing reality with great detail, it is often confused with it and this is possibly a mistake. Mansell makes reference to this when he mentions that “photography offers the appearance of transparency while simultaneously offering a distinct, coded transcription of the real” (1). I personally think that the “coding” is the area of photography where I would like to focus for the following months: how I interpret my reality or somebody elses reality and how the end product reflects that interpretation, hopefully in a way that is distinguishable from other forms of interpreting that reality.

While I related quite a lot at first with Mansell’s way of looking at photography, I was visually captivated by Botha’s Ring Road series (2). In the brief text accompanying his work, Botha makes various references to displacement and disconnection, which from the background provided in the course guide, possibly comes from the feeling of being an outsider as a South African living in China. I like the fact that Botha started the project as a mere physical exploration of the ring road and gradually transitioned to a personal reflection on “displacement and survival” (3),  how he coped away from his home country. The images in the series all have a feeling of sadness, of starkness that comes from the absence of people and general emptiness of the roads themselves. At the same time, the physical structure of the road seems to encapsulate and limit the field of view in the images, sometimes acting as a barrier that prevent us from seeing what is going on. This was particularly the case in this image, where the concrete walls of the road prevent us from seeing the houses at the back with some clarity. This effect goes well with the multiple mentions that Botha makes in the accompanying text of what he calls “invisible limitations”, which, based on my interpretation of the accompanying text, is likely to be more about our self-erected barriers to connection, and the quest to bring some barriers down, perhaps by recalibrating our expectations. This, like Mansell’s words in the interview quoted in the course guide, also resonate with my current struggle to find that inner motivation to recalibrate my photography into something I am proud off and can reach out to others.

I also had a look at Jodie Taylor’s work in the series Memories of Childhood (4). While I did not particularly connect with the images, I found intriguing the approach used by the photographer and in particular I quite liked the use of film cameras, 6×4 prints and cheap photo albums as means of evoking the era which the series is trying to remember. It shows the importance of preparation and emphasises the idea that every decision within the creative process has to be justified and when this justification is well thought out, the whole work comes together in a better way. The subject of returning to the place where we were born is in itself quite intriguing. For multiple reasons, I am not able to do that right now, but I have been thinking instead about my earliest memories here in England, when I first arrived 26 years ago, and I wonder if it would be worthwhile relieving some of such memories and visiting some of those places before I forget them forever.

———————————— ooo ————————————

All the three authors mentioned above had made work which is in many ways deeply personal and introspective. Yet, in many cases the aim of the work itself is to reach out. This seems to be particularly the case of Mansell’s work, where he is using images to express himself, but is also subtly perceivable in the work of Taylor and Botha. I feel that if the aim of the work is to reach out, to use it as a mechanism for coping with our personal circumstances, and the work itself is good enough to reflect that, then the artistic experience will be enriched by allowing the viewer to relate to that experience and come to his or her own conclusions, and the work should be sufficiently robust to withstand multiple interpretations without loosing its main character. The problem, of course, is that when the work becomes too personal for an artist, then it is no longer just a piece of art but also part of something intimate, and as such is very hard to leave it to its own devices. I guess part of maturing as an artist is understanding that people come in all sorts of shapes and forms and that the viewer is not always going to relate to the experiences depicted and in many cases will end up being hostile to something they cannot relate to or understand. When the work is about something personal, particularly something we have been struggling with for some time, then it is probably best to be able to let go, to release whatever is it we were dealing with through the pictures, and then leave them in the open for somebody else to deal with it.


(1) Boothroyd, S., 2015. Photography 1: Context and Narrative. 2nd ed. Barnsley: Open College of the Arts. p 128.

(2) Dewald. 2017. Ring Road – Dewald. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 29 October 2017].

(3) Boothroyd, op. cit. p 66

(4) WeAreOCA. 2017. Photography and Nostalgia – WeAreOCA. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 29 October 2017].


Exercise 2.3

The poem I have selected for this exercise is “The Bells” by Edgar Allan Poe, originally published in 1849:


Hear the sledges with the bells–
Silver bells!
What a world of merriment their melody foretells!
How they tinkle, tinkle, tinkle,
In the icy air of night!
While the stars that oversprinkle
All the heavens, seem to twinkle
With a crystalline delight;
Keeping time, time, time,
In a sort of Runic rhyme,
To the tintinnabulation that so musically wells
From the bells, bells, bells, bells,
Bells, bells, bells–
From the jingling and the tinkling of the bells.


Hear the mellow wedding bells
Golden bells!
What a world of happiness their harmony foretells!
Through the balmy air of night
How they ring out their delight!
From the molten-golden notes,
And all in tune,
What a liquid ditty floats
To the turtle-dove that listens, while she gloats
On the moon!
Oh, from out the sounding cells,
What a gush of euphony voluminously wells!
How it swells!
How it dwells
On the Future! how it tells
Of the rapture that impels
To the swinging and the ringing
Of the bells, bells, bells,
Of the bells, bells, bells, bells,
Bells, bells, bells–
To the rhyming and the chiming of the bells!


Hear the loud alarum bells–
Brazen bells!
What tale of terror, now, their turbulency tells!
In the startled ear of night
How they scream out their affright!
Too much horrified to speak,
They can only shriek, shriek,
Out of tune,
In a clamorous appealing to the mercy of the fire,
In a mad expostulation with the deaf and frantic fire,
Leaping higher, higher, higher,
With a desperate desire,
And a resolute endeavor
Now–now to sit or never,
By the side of the pale-faced moon.
Oh, the bells, bells, bells!
What a tale their terror tells
Of Despair!
How they clang, and clash, and roar!
What a horror they outpour
On the bosom of the palpitating air!
Yet the ear, it fully knows,
By the twanging,
And the clanging,
How the danger ebbs and flows ;
Yet, the ear distinctly tells,
In the jangling,
And the wrangling,
How the danger sinks and swells,
By the sinking or the swelling in the anger of the bells–
Of the bells–
Of the bells, bells, bells, bells,
Bells, bells, bells–
In the clamour and the clangour of the bells!


Hear the tolling of the bells–
Iron bells!
What a world of solemn thought their monody compels!
In the silence of the night,
How we shiver with affright
At the melancholy meaning of their tone!
For every sound that floats
From the rust within their throats
Is a groan.
And the people–ah, the people–
They that dwell up in the steeple,
All alone,
And who, tolling, tolling, tolling,
In that muffled monotone,
Feel a glory in so rolling
On the human heart a stone–
They are neither man nor woman–
They are neither brute nor human–
They are Ghouls:–
And their king it is who tolls ;
And he rolls, rolls, rolls, rolls,
A pæan from the bells!
And his merry bosom swells
With the pæan of the bells!
And he dances, and he yells ;
Keeping time, time, time,
In a sort of Runic rhyme,
To the pæan of the bells–
Of the bells :
Keeping time, time, time,
In a sort of Runic rhyme,
To the throbbing of the bells–
Of the bells, bells, bells–
To the sobbing of the bells ;
Keeping time, time, time,
As he knells, knells, knells,
In a happy Runic rhyme,
To the rolling of the bells–
Of the bells, bells, bells–
To the tolling of the bells,
Of the bells, bells, bells, bells–
Bells, bells, bells–
To the moaning and the groaning of the bells. (1)


The poem is highly onomatopoeic, with the use of many words that evoke sounds, and this is what attracted me to it in the first place. The first time I read it, I had the feeling that the poem was about cycles, going through life’s stages from youth to death, covering innocent joy, hopefulness, despair, resignation and sorrow. These stages were all represented by events or activities where we expect, or traditionally would have expected to hear bells.

The second time I read it, I felt that the association between sound and events was the main idea, and what primarily came to my mind was classic conditioning and learning by association, as if the different ways in which bells can sound predetermined how we react, and the emotions we feel. I also have the impression that the signs are all signals on how to interpret events, rather than a reflection of our own or the author’s direct experience (ie the signs (the bells), rather than being in the middle of the action, evoke a chain of feelings and reactions). It all feels detached and third hand.

The third time I read the poem I went line by line slowly to try to decipher if there was any additional connection that I missed. It seems to me now that Poe was probably more pessimistic about this poem that I thought at first. There seems to be a connection between the first and last part of the poem which I had not noted as first. In the last part, Poe derides those who take joy on death. He seems to be  specifically referring to people in here, although he deflects his commentary somewhat to attribute the delirium to their “king”, which I would assume is Death, and proceeds to describe it by using some of the same words used in the first part of the poem, which I consider to be about pure, innocent joy. The overriding sensation I had after this third reading is that reality is always different from our idea of it and that what may seem innocent can turn out to be sinister and vice-versa.

Looking at all the things that I have taken out of this poem, I still think that Poe is trying to talk to us about life’s ups and downs, but he may also be telling us to be on the guard because we tend to react to signs, to what we perceive  (the different ringing of the bells) in ways that somehow are predictable, or driven by stereotypes or prejudice, but not necessarily always right or appropriate, and sometimes these signs may mislead us.

————————————— ooo —————————————

To depict what I took away from the poem, I wanted to make a series of photographs about signs that we could interpret to mean something based on our current experience. These signs will themselves be wrapped around a cycle of life theme, which I have associated to each part of the poem: innocence/enjoyment, growth/success, despair/failure and maturity/death.  In the poem, many of these themes were wrapped by the sounds of the bells, different bells, and these sounds were probably universally understood as signs for what each part of the poem depicted. Everybody at that time knew the sound of bells tolling for death, and the sound of bells on sledges. Nowadays people may no longer know these signs. They may not be able to make such associations, so the signs would need to be updated. What can be a sign that is universally associated with these things?

  • As I said before, the first part of the poem evokes in me a feeling of joy and innocence. It also takes me back to my childhood. I have tried to put in images signs that convey all this: moving swings, toys, laughter
  • Part II of the poem deals with marriage in a literal sense, but I interpret it as encompassing our growth as beings and the potential prosperity that comes with it: becoming educated, taking a profession, earning a living, moving to our own place, starting a family. The signs I have chosen to evoke this include college results, coins, a happy face.
  • Part III of the poem is about a fire in the literal sense, but I have taken it to represent the adversity, despair and failure that we encounter in life so often. The bells used by fire engines in the 19th century have now been replaced by loud sirens and flashing lights, usually in blue. It is also the colour coming from the top of police cars and ambulances. The blue intermittently flashing colour is now associated with emergencies. Blue is also a colour associated with feeling down, depressed and these are feelings associated with despair, loss of hope, which is one of the feelings I have associated with part three. One of the pictures I have taken for this part feature blue light as a sign. Another modern worry, and one that has been in the news quite recently, is excessive debt. One of the images I have taken depicts bills on the post as a sign of this. I also have taken some images here making reference to alcoholism.
  • Part IV of the poem is about death in the literal sense, but to me this is to do with resignation and acceptance of fate. It is about maturity, the twilight years and the inevitable end. The signs I have decided to depict in this part include images of people sleeping, resting hands, medicine. It is also, as I noticed above, indirectly connected with the first part of the poem, not only because the same words are used in both parts, but also in the frantic rhythm that such words evoke. The overarching feelings that both parts evoke are completely different, and yet they are almost the same rhythmically. I have tried to create a connection with the first part by arranging the image of medicine in the same way as I arranged the image of toys in the first part.

8 images were chosen for the final selection, two for each part of the poem. Most of the images I have taken all have an element of deceit or ambiguity: almost all were taken with props or staged. Some of the images selected also try to convey mixed feelings: the third image of a person seemingly happy could also be interpreted as that person being sad or reflective, his facial expression masked by the angle of view. Only a few images were taken straight without interference or modification. This was done in part out of necessity, to implement ideas that came to my mind, but also being conscious of the feeling that I had when reading the poem that not all we see can be trusted and that signs can also be misinterpreted.

The final selection is included below:



(1) Robert Giordano. 2017. The Bells by Edgar Allan Poe – [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 11 November 2017].



Exercise 2.2

In the following, I discussed how I re-captioned various photographs taken from London’s Evening Standard. In many cases, the image is so neutral that it can be re-contextualised by the caption in many ways while still being an effective part of the message.

The first picture was taken from the London Evening Standard of 3rd October 2017. Its original caption is shown below the image

Brave: Mohammad Ali and Martin Luther King come together in 1967 (left) at a fair-housing rally in Louisville after King joined the fighter in condemning the Vietnam War

The original caption, which is very much in line with what Barthes described as the “anchor” type of message not only put the image in the full context of the events where it was taken, but they also guide our feelings towards the subjects depicted by putting the word “Brave” in front of the text. Could the results be changed completely by just changing that word? The rest of the caption is very descriptive, so it would not be inconceivable that a contemporary newspaper in America could have put the same caption preceded with a negative word:

Shameful!: Mohammad Ali and Martin Luther King come together in 1967 (left) at a fair-housing rally in Louisville after King joined the fighter in condemning the Vietnam War

The viewer relies on the veracity of the text to provide the right context to interpret an image. But a caption does not need to be accurate and indeed, an image, specially one where there are no iconic elements that tie it with a particular interpretation, could be reused for many purposes by virtue of the analogical nature of its message. In the image we have Mohammed Ali and we know foremost that he was a boxer. In addition to the general knowledge that boxers give press conferences before their bouts, we also know that Ali was famous for his cockiness and for constantly taunting his opponents. In the picture, Ali seems to be speaking with a reporter. The image also includes Martin Luther King, whom we know for being a political activist (but not a boxer). He does look rather distracted in the image, almost like stunned. For an alternative interpretation of this image, however implausible, we could insert this caption:

Mohammed Ali and Martin Luther King give a press conference before their heavyweight championship fight next week in Houston

A similar effect of implausibility could be achieved with a relay type of caption like

– ‘ I am definitely greater than Dr King!’ –

The second picture was taken from the London Evening Standard of 3rd October 2017. Its original caption is shown below the image.

Macchiato moment: stay sharp during meetings, like at W1A above, with a caffeine hit

The photograph was illustrating an article on strategies to maintain our attention span and being more productive, and the caption alludes to that (“stay sharp during meetings”) while also referencing one of the strategies mentioned, that of drinking coffee, by using words like “macchiato moment” and “caffeine hit”.  The picture itself, a caption from the BBC comedy “W1A” depicts a meeting, with one person being shown quite prominently, while the others, in the periphery, are one partially visible or obscure each other. The person in the middle is also the only one having a hot drink, evidenced by the mug, while the rest appear to be drinking water. It is hard to ignore the giant black and white image of a person’s face on the background. We are not sure what this is, but it can be used to support various caption ideas:

-‘I would not turn around now if I were you!’ –

-‘Do you want another coff…? Oh, what the heck is that…!’ –

The third picture was taken from the London Evening Standard of 3rd October 2017. Its original caption is shown below the image.

Nikki Amuka-Bird,…in rehearsals for The Lady From the Sea with director Kwame Kwei-Armah, far left, and Helena Wilson, centre.

The image featured in an article on actor Nikki Amuka-Bird, who is staring in The Lady From the Sea, an Ibsen play to be staged in the Donmar Wharehouse, in London. The original caption places the image in the context of a rehearsal, where we see the director giving instructions to the actors, but the image is sufficiently generic to be reused for many other purposes with the correct caption.

‘Reverend Lewis talks to church volunteers after the fundraising event held in Edgbaston last Monday.

The fact that he is gesticulating and the two ladies in the image seem to be attentively looking at his hands could also inspire some alternative relay captions:

-‘The cat was this big!

The story was told with all the details

The final picture was taken from the London Evening Standard of 4th October 2017. Its original caption is shown below.

Some like it hot: Balfour Beatty has won a large contract in Miami but shares still fell

The original article was an economic piece about various companies, including construction company Balfour Beatty, which has recently won a large contract in Miami. The image of Miami illustrates this point, although other than the reference to the location, there was not much connection between the image and the article.

In the image, other than the art deco buildings and the palm trees clearly anchoring the image in Miami, we can see a person riding a skateboard through the middle of the road. In some places, this may be considered dangerous or illegal and I could see this image being used to highlight this:

Skating in the middle of the road may seem fun, but it could be dangerous if you are not careful.

It can also be used to achieve the opposite:

Skating on the road in areas with low traffic can be safer than using the pavement, where there is little room for manoeuvre when encountering pedestrians.


Exercise 2.1

The following notes summarize my reflection on how Briony Campbell’s The Dad Project compares with W. Eugene Smith’s Country Doctor. I have made notes on each of these two essays separately in previous blog entries (see links to my notes on Country Doctor here and to The Dad Project here).

Both The Dad Project and Country Doctor attempt to document a series of events but while the former has a clear chronological feeling to it, Smith’s essay is presented as a series of vignettes or mini stories that are chronological within themselves but that could come in any order within the essay without altering the end result. In that respect, Country Doctor feels more like snapshots at a specific point of somebody’s life, rather than a path along it.

W. Eugene Smith made the effort to be invisible in the scene and consequently Country Doctor is a detached, cold account of the events and consequently, feels objective. At no point in the series one feels that Smith is emotionally affected by what is happening in the frame. His point of view and execution feels like that of a press photographer. His pictures are dramatic, contrasty and skillfully composed and angled to maximise impact. While the pictures, as originally intended for magazine publication, are accompanied by captions, many of them are very clear and unambiguous on what they are portraying and it would be fairly straightforward to follow the story even without the written aids. This contrasts with The Dad Project, which feels a lot more ambiguous and difficult to understand as a sequence. The story in The Dad Project was not about the photographer’s dad, but more about her relationship with him at the time of his terminal illness and death, and as a result she appears in many of the images. The involvement of the photographer with the subject and the difficulty of the circumstances being portrayed makes the photographs in here more subtle, indirect and more subjective. Yet, while it is harder to follow than Country Doctor, The Dad Project still makes visual sense when viewed in sequence.

The format and presentation of Country Doctor was somewhat pre-determined at the time of shooting. W. Eugene Smith was working on a commission from LIFE and the photographs were always intended to be published as a magazine feature. The pictures are also available now on their own, online and in book form, but they seem somehow to have left W. Eugene Smith control once they were shot. As I mentioned previously in my separate notes for Country Doctor (link), it feels like the editorial team in LIFE had a great deal of control over which pictures were included and how they were presented or captioned. I could not find any evidence that Smith made any further attempts to recycle this material into other projects. This also contrasts with Briony Campbell’s approach in The Dad Project, as the material has been presented in a multitude of formats and media, including magazine / newspaper features, exhibitions and in book form. In addition to photographs, Campbell also makes use of video in the project, which altogether enriches the experience. Because the The Dad Project is not merely a chronicle of somebody dying, but instead tries to explore the relationship between the photographer and her father, the project does not feel as if it was complete. The photographer seems to be using this material as a way of continuing that relationship, beyond her father’s passing, and the project seems to be morphing over time to explore different aspects of this. In fact, looking at Campbell’s notes (1), one gets the impression that she only began to figure out how to use the photographs and video footage she captured long after she finished principal photography, and she has allowed the material to be shaped not only by herself, but also by others. This continuous exploration, all of which is happening after the photographs were taken and without any possibility of re-taking them, is probably what Campbell refers to when she mentions that The Dad Project “is the story of an ending without an ending”


(1) Campbell, B. (2011). The Dad Project. [online] Available at: [Accessed 11 Sep. 2017]

Exercise 1.5 – The real and the digital

The following observations come from reading the section “The Real and the Digital” in Wells, Liz. (2009) Photography: A Critical Introduction (4th edition). Abingdon: Routledge, pp.73–75.

The article discusses briefly the relationship between “the real” and photography, in the context of the technological advances that have made the manipulation of images ubiquitous in many of today’s photographic practices. One of the points made is that while we have always been conscious that photographic images could be manipulated or altered in a deceitful way, we have also “…been prepared to believe them to be evidential and more “real” than other kinds of images” (idem, p 74), and that it was “…possible to argue that the authenticity of the photograph was validated less by the nature of the image itself than through the structure of discursive, social and professional practices which constituted photography” (idem, p 74). In other words, the perception of authenticity in a photograph is perhaps more influenced by our understanding of the parameters of each type of photographic practice, than by the way its contents are presented or arranged. As an example, the ethical requirements of photojournalism would perhaps incline more people to believe that a press photograph is a more authentic representation of reality than the output of a conceptual artist using just photography as a medium. The article goes on to argue that “Any radical transformation in this [photographic practice] structure makes us uneasy about the status of the photograph” as a medium to represent the real (idem p. 74), a situation that was underpinned by recent developments in photography leading to the “…merging and lack of definition between photographic genres” (idem p. 75).

In looking at the arguments made by Wells, one has to wonder to what extent the technological advances are actually driving the changes to photographic practices that she mentions in her article. For instance, Wells quotes Campany to make the point that the definition of photography is less dependent on “…what it is technologically than what it is culturally” (idem p 75), but in the age of social media, how can we separate culture from technology? It is difficult to argue that the smart phone, which is the device most commonly used these days to produce photographs, doesn’t determine at the same time how we choose to consume, as a society, photographic images (eg via image sharing applications). This, in turn, is likely to have had a profound impact on our perception of the structure of photographic practices, as the same image repositories (eg Flickr, Facebook, etc) are likely to be used by diverse practitioners (photojournalists, artists, documentarians) to share their images, thus adding to the lack of definition alluded by Wells in the article.

At the same time, and while it is undeniable that image manipulation has always existed, it is also clear that the proliferation of image sharing apps in recent times, all of which offer image editing facilities, have not only made it trivial to alter photographs, but (by means of their social acceptance as the prime way of consuming images) have also contributed to the establishment of aesthetic codes that validate such manipulations. This may be initially circumscribed to a limited subset of photographic practices (eg vernacular photography, art photography), but the blurring of the corners between practices fostered by the sharing of technological platforms should have contributed, at least to an extent, to create an expectation of manipulation for most photographs.

A point can also be made more directly about the speed and ease with which image manipulation can be achieved in modern times. Without even seeking to compare the quality of output in either cases, it should be clear for most practitioners that software manipulation is significantly faster, and generally more consistently reproducible, than even the simplest of analogue photographic manipulations. This in itself is likely to have contributed to greater expectations, by the viewer, of photographic images departing more and more from reality; under the perception that the ease with which they could be manipulated creates ever-increasing temptation for undertaking seemingly innocent alterations. This seems to have been confirmed, at least anecdotally, by the numerous cases of press photographs being disqualified from industry-run contests in recent years (see for instance here and here). In this case, one could argue again that the technological advances have somewhat contributed to the altering of perceived social and cultural structures within certain photographic practices (eg photojournalism in this case).


Exercise 1.4 – Digital manipulation

The idea for this exercise came by while I was walking to work. There are quite a lot of road works along my regular route and in many of these there are quite a lot of manholes which are being re-made / repaired. While looking at some of the workers lying the pavement, I started to wander what would be like if somebody was trapped in any of these holes and emerged all of a sudden in the middle of the works, to the amazement of the workers. As I kept walking, I started looking down and paying attention to the rain water drains on the road and how these, even if relatively large (about a foot and a half on each direction), would still be too tight for a relativelly large person to be trapped in them. This is when I made the connection with the idea of documenting something that appears realistic, but on second though could never be: somebody trapped in one of these drains trying to escape.

I took all the photographs on that same morning to make sure the light was as similar as possible: a picture of the drain, two pictures of my hands and a shot of my head and shoulders from above (holding the camera as high as possible over my head). The original pictures are show below:

I started by importing all the images into Photoshop. With the aid of the quick selection tool, I selected the fingers from each of the two hand shots and copied each one into a separate layer. I then used the free transform tool to reduce the size of the fingers and move them around to the correct position and orientation on top of the drain. With the aid of a layer mask and the brush, I painted back the drain on top of the bits of hand that were not needed. Because the hands came out much clearer than the drain, I then added an adjustment layer for levels and another one for saturation in order to tone down the lightness and colour in the fingers (they became quite red when I darken them down). I subsequently selected the head and shoulders from the final shot, using again the quick selection tool, and added them on to the drain image. Free transform was used again to resize and relocate the head, with a layer mask being added to paint back the parts of the drain that I wanted to show up. I then added a bit of Gaussian blur to the head and shoulders to make them slightly out of focus (focus is clearly above the head, on the top of the drain grill). Additional adjustment layers for levels (to darken) curves (to control contrast) and saturation (to reduce redness) were added to the head and shoulders layer.

Semi-finished image from Photoshop

Following the above, the semi-finished image (see above) was imported into Lightroom where additional adjustments were made to come to the final image: perspective was adjusted, the image cropped, further work was undertaken on the fingers to selectively darken them and to create shadows under them, as well as on the head and shoulders to selectivelly darken or brighten certain areas. The final picture is shown below:

The photographer trying to scape from a drain


Exercise 1.3 – Sarah Pickering

The following comments are made after reviewing the series “Public Order” by Sarah Pickering, available from her website (1)

Approaching this exercise after having read the relevant passages of the course guide is quite challenging, given that I already knew what to expect when looking for these images in Sarah Pickering’s website. Her website provides a link to the series (1), but this includes a slide show of the images with no explanation or background, other than the title to the picture and the date it was taken. Trying to look at these pictures objectively, right from the first image it is clear something is off. The starting picture is titled “Denton Underground Station” (link), which people familiar with London will have trouble recognising, as it does not exist. If that clue was not enough, the buildings running along the side street are all in profile and is clear that they only consist of a front wall: these are clearly fake buildings in a fake area of London. We know from the outset the scenery is fabricated, but we do not know what it is. Subsequent pictures continue to give up clues (like boarded up windows) that something it off, but throughout the series it is not clearly indicated that these are police training grounds, with Pickering giving this up slowly instead. The earliest indication we have of this comes from the picture “Guards / Violent Man” (link), where riot gear can be seen through one of the doorways in this indoors shot. Further clues are provided in later pictures, such as “High Street (Barricade)” (link),  and “River Way (Roadblock)”(link). Knowing in advance that these pictures are about police training grounds takes away the mystery from the viewer, but anyone paying attention to the visual elements without that knowledge could also conclude that these were pictures of a large film set (see for instance “Magdalen Green” (link), where the fake house is built indoors, like if it was within a giant sound stage).

The pictures are detached and calm. There are a record of a place, which is shot as straight as possible. The sensation I get is that something seem to have happened in this place (there is rubble on the floor in some of the pictures and there is no person in sight), perhaps some sort of riot (or the filming of it), but that all is over and now everything is in peace. There is no explanation as to how this peace was achieved and this adds a degree of anxiety in the viewer.

I do not think the pictures are misleading if you consider the series as a whole. It is clear from some of the images that these are not pictures of real houses or real towns, if you look carefully at the visual clues. The curiosity that these pictures generate on the viewer, trying to guess what they are, must lead to something and this is a bit of a mystery to me, although I believe that in the end the deception is only there to challenge our sensorial response (what we see) and to make us conscious that what appears to be is not necessarily what is, that what is photographed is not reality itself. But these are not pictures which are documenting something in the social sense of the word. There is no situation that is being exposed and there is no intrinsic political statement from the subject matter (although the deceit itself can be interpreted as a political statement). In that respect, I do not believe the use of a “documentary style” for the series in this case is misleading or inappropriate as such, but is a valid tool that has been used by Pickering for artistic purposes.


(1) Sarah Pickering. 2017. Sarah Pickering. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 11 July 2017].




Exercise 1.2 – Street photography

For this exercise, I walked around London streets from South Kensington all the way to the City of London and back. Taking different 60 photographs in total, 30 in colour and 30 black and white, proved to be more challenging that I thought, and I spread the shut-out over three separate days. Below I provide thumbnails of each of the two final sets:


Black and white

My favourite shots from both series are show below:

I found myself taking slightly different types of photographs on both sets. The black and white set includes quite a few pictures that rely on reflections, light and shadows and / or are taking indirectly, whereas the colour set includes more straight shots and was focused on objects and situations imagined while walking along. At the moment, I feel more pleased with how the black and white pictures came out, but only because they are more aesthetically pleasing, possibly because I have also been taking more black and white pictures in recent years (most of it in film) and my eye is more atuned with what. However, I feel that the colour photographs have the potential to make a story more interesting by virtue of “normalising” the look and allowing the contents to become more relevant. An example of this is the shot of the abandoned heels, taken on the southern edge of Hyde Park. The scene is normalized by being shot straight in colour, without any manipulation, and one would not think much of this if it was not for the abandoned shoes, which prompt the viewer to ask where these came from, who may abandoned them and why? In black and white, the same scene would not look natural and the shoes would not have stood out as much as they do here.


Exercise 1.1 – Citizen Journalism

For this exercise, I had a look at various web pages outlining examples of citizen journalism. I looked primarily at still images, although several of the sites had videos as well, both in connection with specific protest events or interviewing the photographer.

Styles are always different, but most of the photographers I looked at had primarily covered events and protests, and most of them have nearly always done so from an insider perspective (i.e., as part of the protest itself rather than as a bystander). Some of the pictures depict police violence and in some cases, the perspective is not dissimilar from that of the victim of the attack itself (see for example these two pictures by Angel Zayas, here and here (1)), and indeed in many cases these journalists would be direct victims of abuse themselves.

Photo-reportages of protests are not new and we have always been able to see dramatic pictures of these events, even when these were covered by regular press photographers. The advent of citizen journalism has perhaps added a new perspective to the coverage, though, closer to the action and also closer to the intended recipients of the news: a lot of these photographs are distributed through blogs and social media, and likely reach a wider audience than photographs included in press publications.

So we are closer to the action, but one has to wonder if this makes any significant difference in terms of the quality of reportage. For one, being inside the protest, and in many cases being part of the protest, could lead to a degree of bias that may not necessarily be present in the output of a professional press photographer. One could argue that the output of the latter may also be subject to editorial bias by the owners of the paper publishing the photographs, but that does not necessarily leave us any better than before, it just provides a counterbalance to the old bias while leaving the general public none the wiser about what really happened.

The point above is interestingly highlighted by Elena Kirsh in an article published by the Jerusalem Post (2), where she talked about this image (3) of a soldier pinning down a girl that has probably been staged, but has been used on numerous occasions to portray violence in Syria and Palestine. Ms Kirsh goes on to argue that uncontrolled citizen journalism could end up with fake news being spread widely, in some cases aided by unsuspecting newspapers picking up and reporting the images without verifying their authenticity, and that citizen journalisms somehow needs to be moderated or reigned upon by traditional news outlets, citing the examples of the “open newslist” from the Guardian and CNN’s “iReport”. One has to wonder, though, if the solution of any potential lack of objectivity by citizen journalism is for it to be subjected to the editorial control of traditional media outlets. Citizen journalists would in this case become no different from traditional press photographers and their unique contribution to the way of presenting the news (ie as an insider) could be lost in the process.

Aside from the question of objectivity, being closer to the action, which I would argue is perhaps the defining feature of citizen journalism, brings up coverage of events that would generally be ignored by mainstream media but that nonetheless may be of interest to the general public. Angel Zayas again provides examples of this, when he photographs police officers in New York searching, arresting or harassing members of the public. See for example here and here, taken from his previously quoted Instagram page (1).

On the subject of aesthetics, it is interesting to note that some (but to be fair, not the majority) of the examples of citizen journalism pictures that I have seen were highly stylised photographs which probably had a good degree of post processing. A good example of this are these pictures depicting protests by Michael Nigro (see here) and Jenna Pope (see here), both of which were taken from an article on citizen journalism appearing in the Huffington Post (3). These pictures are very likely genuine and depict a situation of interest, but the use of post-processing to make them “pop” may detract from their subject matter and could even give grounds to suspicions that they have been altered somewhat. Traditional journalism has long been obsessed with limiting the degree of post-processing that can be done to a picture (see for instance rules from the World Press Photo contest on manipulation (5)), but citizen journalism is not necessarily bound by these rules and may breach them out of necessity in order to apeal to their target audiences in the various social media outlets that they use.

In the balance, it may be argued that rise of citizen journalism does not necessarily improve the objectivity of documentary photography, but it create additional points of view on matters that be of interest and that in itself is a positive development.


(1) Angel Zayas Photography ( • Instagram photos and videos . 2017. Angel Zayas Photography ( • Instagram photos and videos . [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 17 June 2017].

(2) Untangling the Web: Citizen journalists running amok . 2017. Untangling the Web: Citizen journalists running amok . [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 17 June 2017].

(3) 2017. No page title. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 17 June 2017].

(4) HuffPost. 2017. Let’s All Commit Acts of Citizen Journalism | HuffPost. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 17 June 2017].

(5) World Press Photo. 2017. What counts as manipulation? | World Press Photo. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 17 June 2017].